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Soldiers The soldiers of the First World War, in all nations involved, have been since 1914 an important object of historical presentation. At the same time, they have served, albeit with varying intensity, as a foil for historiographical views. In this process, historians have particularly argued about the appropriate sociological placing of that broad swathe of physical violence that is distinctive for 20th-century German and European history, and the soldiers of 1914–1918 symbolized their point of departure

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Soldiers’ Letters Soldiers’ letters conveyed by the German field post mail formed the only means of communication permitted to First World War soldiers for carrying on regular contact with their relatives, friends, and colleagues at home – at least in writing. In the period of the modern mass army, soldiers’ letters became themselves a mass phenomenon. For the soldiers, contact by letter was psychologically just as essential for survival as for their relatives; they were also an object of interest for supervision

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Soldiers’ Jargon In all armies in the First World War there developed during the war a vocabulary specific to the group. Soldiers’ jargon related primarily to soldiers’ immediate environment at the front and in rest areas; at its center were duties, equipment, and weapons. In general, soldiers’ jargon followed a minimizing tendency: for example, describing large caliber artillery shells as “coal boxes,” hand grenades as “pineapples,” and an artillery attack as “calico” or “music.” Onomatopoeic elements played a part

Soldiers’ Newspapers Collective term for publications that were produced in the immediate vicinity of the front (front and trench newspapers) or in the rear areas by the official military authorities (army and corps newspapers). The editorial staffs of the soldiers’ newspapers consisted mostly of officers, but also of lower-ranking soldiers. Many soldiers’ newspapers printed official war bulletins and “eyewitness accounts” of recent events that had been written down by the war participants themselves. The sketches

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Soldiers’ Humor The culture of popular humor during the First World War followed the structural features of prewar civilian humor, only with content related to the war. At its center was a mockery of the enemies in the war, the social élites, the relation between home and the front, problems in service and between comrades, and sexual relations. Several situational contexts of soldiers’ humor may be distinguished: – The culture of oral story-telling: confidentially repeating jokes and mocking stories

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Soldiers’ Packages ( Liebesgaben ) In the specific German context, gifts to soldiers from the home front, including homemade woolens and underwear, confectionery, handmade articles, and tobacco products, conveyed by the million to the front by the German Army Postal Services during the First World War. At the same time, the term Liebesgaben embraced the involvement of the German female population in particular in a comprehensive system of wartime welfare, “voluntary loving action,” creating an “army

Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils Representative bodies of soldiers and workers on the basis of the council system, a form of political rule aimed at practicing direct democracy with the aid of elected councilors. The council idea had essentially been developed by Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. In the Russian Revolution of 1905 self-governing bodies had for the first time been organized in the form of spontaneously elected councils (soviets). After the February Revolution of 1917 Lenin tried to enforce the council

PDF DiNardo, Richard L., - Modern Soldier In A Busby: August Von Mackensen, 1914–1916 Keywords: Soldiers and Combat Soldiers and Combat | Russian Front Russian Front | Germany

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PDF Duménil, Anne - Soldiers’ Suffering and Military Justice in the German Army of the Great War Keywords: Germany Germany | Experience of combat Experience of combat | Soldiers and Combat

PDF Keene, Jennifer D. - Protest and Disability: A New Look at African American Soldiers during the First World War Keywords: The United States of America The United States of America | Soldiers and Combat Soldiers and Combat