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wars ISFWWS-Keywords: General General | Origins and Pre-war Origins and Pre-war | Legacy Legacy | Society Society | Culture

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neutrality | state behaviour state behaviour ISFWWS-Keywords: Neutral States Neutral States | Origins and Pre-war Origins and Pre-war | Politics Politics

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realist foreign policy ISFWWS-Keywords: Scandinavia Scandinavia | Politics Politics | Neutral States Neutral States | Origins and Pre-war Origins and Pre

Poland | Politics Politics | Germany Germany Abstract: Polish veterans faced the dilemma of how to criticize war, when war was regarded as the origin and guarantee of the state's newly achieved independence. According to their specific political circumstances, the Polish veterans were furthermore confronted by the dilemma to

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Albion (Celtic: white-land) Earliest known name given to the island of Great Britain by Greek geographers of the 5th century BC, transmitted by the Roman poet Avianus. In Roman times the term was also associated with the white cliffs of Dover (Lat. albus = white). During the Middle Ages, “Albion” came to be used as a synonym for the Kingdom of England, and later the British Empire, most often in a negative connotation as “perfidious Albion.” This derogatory slogan has its origins in France, where it can be traced

their efforts on destroying the Russian Second Army at the Battle of Tannenberg. This debacle was widely ascribed to Rennenkampf ’s hesitant operational leadership. He was removed from his command in November, after the Russian defeat at Łódź. Court martial proceedings were initially introduced against him, but these were dismissed. Meeting with increasing public hostility on account of his Baltic German origins, Rennenkampf resigned. He was arrested and shot by the Bolsheviks in Taganrog after the October Revolution. (→  Tannenberg

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preserving their sovereignty. A closer look at Dutch and Swiss neutrality before and during the First World War illustrates discrepancy; and to account for these differences this chapter explores the origins and nature of the neutral status of both these small nations. It concludes that they were in fact two fundamentally different types of neutrality. A breach in neutral behaviour was always regarded as an isolated incident involving one or more individuals, but it could not damage or destroy the inviolable link between the Swiss federal

to the experience of a modern total war. It is easy to see the origin of his formal language in the Modernist tendencies on display in Berlin in 1914, shortly before the outbreak of war, at the great exhibition Expressionismus, Kubismus und Futurismus . These expressionistic war drawings, not published by Dix until 1961, were followed after 1918 by veristic/realist works, giving quite another picture of the terrors of war: in 1923 the great painting Schützengraben (Trench), now lost; in 1924 the 50-strong cycle of etchings Der Krieg ; and between 1929 and 1932

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1974 Koch H.W. The Origins of the First World War: Great Power Rivalry and German War Aims London 1984

I Mombauer A. Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War Cambridge UK 2000