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France The “Sacred Union” On August 4, 1914, the prime minister of France René Viviani read out a message from President Raymond Poincaré before the French National Assembly, whereupon the minister of justice proceeded to do the same before the Senate. This procedure, to begin with, illustrates the French politicians’ fear of evoking any resemblance to a monarchy: the president of the republic was not allowed to address the parliamentary assemblies himself, and his “message” had

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French, Sir John (September 28, 1852, Ripple Vale, Kent – May 21, 1925, Deal), British field marshal and British Army Commander in Chief on the Western Front 1914/1915. French’s early career included the usual colonial postings in Egypt and India. He first gained a reputation as a courageous and energetic officer as commander of a cavalry division in the Boer War (1899–1902). The war led to further key posts, not least owing to the fact that French mixed easily with politicians, especially liberal Tories. In 1913 he

Armed Forces (France) During the World War the French armed forces were faced with an extraordinary organizational challenge. Including foreign legionaries and the colonial troops, there were a total 8.7 million men assembled under arms. Until General Joffre was replaced as commander-in-chief in December 1916, Grand Quartier Général (General Staff, GQG) held the supreme command. According to the decree of December 2, 1913, in time of war its commander in chief would maintain supreme command of the

Mutinies in the French Army 1917 On April 16, 1917, General Nivelle, who had replaced General Joffre as commander in chief of the French Army in December 1916, launched the great offensive on the Chemin des Dames (Nivelle Offensive). Many in the army (and in the country at large) believed that this offensive would decide the war. The disappointment was thus great when it became clear, only a few hours after the beginning of the offensive, that this assault in very difficult terrain and under terrible weather

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PDF Bard, Christine - A Bitter-Sweet Victory: Feminisms in France (1918–1923) Keywords: feminists feminists | France France | La Garconne La

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PDF Meteling, Wencke - German and French Regiments on the Western Front, 1914–1918 Keywords: First World War First World War | French armies French armies | German army

PDF Doughty, Robert A. - Winning And Losing: France On The Marne And On The Meuse Keywords: French Army and its combattants French Army and its combattants | Western Front Western Front | France

PDF Showalter, Dennis - ‘It All Goes Wrong!’: German, French, and British Approaches to Mastering the Western Front Keywords: Western Front Western Front | Military organisation of combat Military organisation of combat

PDF Beaupré, Nicolas - New Writers, New Literary Genres (1914–1918): The Contribution of Historical Comparatism (France, Germany) Keywords: Literature Literature | Experience of combat Experience of combat

PDF Beurier, Joëlle - Information, Censorship or Propaganda? The Illustrated French Press in the First World War Keywords: censorship censorship | French soldier French soldier | Great War