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Australia Australia entered the First World War as a federal dominion of the British Empire (Commonwealth of Australia), having achieved that status in 1901. Although the Australian colonies had sent troops to the Boer War between 1899 and 1902, there was no military tradition in the sense of a high-echelon military leadership and administration and a defense policy, and precious little national experience of war. Yet, by the end of the First World War, almost seven Australian cavalry and infantry divisions were in


PDF Ariotti, Kate - Australian Prisoners of the Turks: Negotiating Culture Clash in Captivity ISFWWS-Keywords: Australia Australia | Prisoners of War Prisoners of War | The Ottoman Empire and the


| Naval Warfare Naval Warfare | International Relations during the War International Relations during the War | Australia Australia | New Zealand New Zealand | Canada Canada | The United States of

Science, Technology, and Medicine | Australia Australia | New Zealand New Zealand | The Ottoman Empire and the Middle East The Ottoman Empire and the Middle East | Poland Poland

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ANZAC The Allied operations on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 marked the first time ANZAC forces fought in the European theater of war. The completion of this mission in January of 1916 also brought to an end the deployment of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) along this front. Troops from Australia and New Zealand were now sent to the more important theaters of the First World War. Initially the corps was transferred to Egypt for rest, training, and expansion. Divided into


and Birdwood became Secretary of the Indian Army Department in 1912. At the outbreak of the First World War he played a central role in the dispatch of Indian units to Egypt, Mesopotamia, and France. In December 1914, Kitchener appointed Birdwood commander of the newly created Australia-New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). Birdwood convinced Kitchener that a combined land-sea operation had to form part of the offensive in the Dardanelles, but his troops were already weakened by high losses. In the costly assault led by Birdwood on the heights of Sari Bair

Film, The First World War in ISFWWS-Keywords: Australia Australia | Britain Britain | Canada Canada | Culture Culture | France


Armed Forces (Dominions) The settler colonies of the British Empire (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa) had already acquired the status of dominions prior to 1914, as part of a constitutional development towards full independence. Self-determination in domestic matters had already been granted to Canada in 1867, to Australia in 1901, to New Zealand in 1907, and to South Africa in 1910. The British declaration of war on Germany in 1914 was binding for all dominions, since London still controlled the


New Zealand New Zealand shared many World War experiences with its larger Pacific neighbor Australia. Yet there existed just as many differences which could not be erased by the fact that the troops of both states fought in joint contingents like the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) for most of the war. The military organization before the war was based on a territorial militia established in 1909, with a total strength of 25,000 men. Under the military service laws, the stationing of these soldiers

Luckner, Felix Count von (June 9, 1881, Dresden – April 13, 1966, Malmö), German naval officer. Luckner left the Gymnasium (grammar school) at the age of 13 and sailed as ship’s boy on the steamer Niobe to Australia, where he worked as a dishwasher, fakir’s helper, Salvation Army missionary, and prize boxer. Wishing to make the acquaintance of his idol Buffalo Bill, Luckner signed on as a seaman on a four-master bound for San Francisco. From there he hiked across the American continent, although he failed to meet