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This entry provides an overview of the history and current status of the psychology of religion. It discusses the early contexts and origins of psychology of religion, depth psychological approaches to religion, empirical approaches stemming from mainstream scientific psychology, and some ways in which religion and psychology have stood in a more reciprocal relationship to each other. Common issues addressed in relation to these diverse approaches include methodology; the content of religion; the origin, development, and effects of religion; and evaluations—both the theories’ evaluations of religion and scholarly evaluations of the theories. ⸙

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This entry explains the meaning of the term ‘archetype’ and its uses in ancient philosophical and religious writing, in some modern sources, and, at greater length, in the two most influential recent formulations relevant to the study of religions, those by Carl Gustav Jung and Mircea Eliade. ⸙