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ABSTRACTReferences to legal regimes serving the interests of the community of States have become quite frequent, less so references to regimes guided by the principle of solidarity. The General Course undertook to analyze the relevant regimes. This analysis established contours on what are the essential features of community interests and the principle of solidarity. It identified three types of community interests. In a further step, the Course assessed as to whether the traditional international norm- making as well as its implementation system meet the challenges resulting from the dedication to community interests or to the principle of solidarity. It concludes that these regimes have had a significant impact upon the international normative order. International regimes are developed in stages; non-legally binding norms initiate and guide on a principled level such norm making. Non-legally binding norms occasionally substitute legal regimes. New actors besides States and international organizations influence the development international norms and new fora have emerged initiating norms or develop them progressively. These normative developments have had an influence on the relevant international implementation/enforcement systems. The Course identifies a clear shift from confrontational means of enforcement to non-confrontational ones. Finally, the Course identified that the existing international dispute settlement system is only beginning to meet the challenges posed by community oriented regimes. The possibility to bring a case before an international court or tribunal is still dominated by the dogma that such action can only be brought by States, which can claim the violation of their individual interests. The International Court of Justice eroded this dogma in its Order of January 2020 concerning the dispute between The Gambia and Myanmar.

ABSTRACTRüdiger Wolfrum, director of the Max-Planck Institute Comparative Public Law and International Law, splits his course on the means of ensuring compliance with and enforcement of international law into seven chapters. After an introductory chapter, Rüdiger Wolfrum describes the régimes that have been designed to ensure that the obligations to provide for the protection or the sustainable development of the environment are complied with. In what follows, the author examines the confrontational means to enforce compliance to these obligations (withdrawal of privileges of membership of an organization, trade restrictions). Rüdiger Wolfrum then presents non-confrontational means to ensure compliance to these obligations (compensating economic benefits, compliance assistance).

Rüdiger Wolfrum, Directeur de l’Institut Max-Planck de droit public comparé et de droit international de Heidelberg, développe son cours sur les moyens de faire respecter et appliquer le droit de l’environnement en sept chapitres. Après un chapitre introductif, Rüdiger Wolfrum décrit les régimes établis pour faire respecter les obligations liées au respect de l’environnement ou au développement durable. L’auteur s’intéresse ensuite aux moyens contraignants permettant de faire respecter ces obligations (contre-mesures, retraits de droits liés à la qualité de membre d’une organisation, restriction aux échanges). Rüdiger Wolfrum présente enfin les moyens non contraignants permettant de faire respecter ces obligations (avantages économiques compensatoires, assistance, etc.)

Available under license only Elisa Baroncini & Rüdiger Wolfrum Article 25 DSU: Arbitration 1.     Expeditious arbitration within the WTO as an alternative means of dispute settlement can facilitate the solution of certain disputes that concern issues that are clearly defined by both parties....