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1. Neoscholasticism is a movement in philosophical theology that sought to revive Roman Catholic theology—after the shocks of rationalism, the Enlightenment, and revolution—by the adoption of Scholasticism, particularly as taught by Thomas Aquinas (ca. 1225–74; Thomism). Often the term carries a polemical undertone, referring to its Ultramontanism (esp. in F. Michelis) and Jesuitism (Jesuits). Its rise in the 19th century may be understood against the background of the decline of romantic (e.g., the Tübingen school) and idealistic (G. Hermes, A. Günther) attempts to revitalize theology, as well as the vacuum in theological teaching. Various centers in Italy and Spain with strong apologetic interests were most influential.