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lit. "consensus"; a technical term in Islamic jurisprudence (oṣūl al-feqh).

the title of a large literary anthology compiled by Shaikh Bahāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad ʿĀmeli, commonly known as Shaikh Bahāʾi, the gifted polymath and leading jurist of the Safavid empire during most of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1629).

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"lit. permission, license, authorization"; a term describing a variety of academic certificates ranging in length from a few lines to many fascicles.

The act by which humans procreate, and the sum total of those attributes that cause an individual to be physically attractive to another. While the Qurʾān does criticize lust for women as an example of man's infatuation with worldly pleasures (cf. q 3:14), it does not categorically condemn sex as a cause of evil and attachment to the world. The Qurʾān does recognize sex as an important feature of the natural world and subjects it to legislation in a number of passages (see law and the qurʾān ). It accepts sex as a natural and regular part of human existence, specifically authorizing sexual pleasure and not simply condoning sex for the sake of procreation. It restricts sex to the institutions of marriage and slavery (see marriage and divorce; slaves and slavery), and condemns incest, adultery, fornication (see adultery and fornication ), prostitution, promiscuity, lewdness (see chastity; modesty), and male homosexual sex (see homosexuality ), while defining marriage and divorce in ways which modified and restricted the variety of unions found in pre-Islamic Arabian practice (see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān ). Sex also plays an important role in several narratives (q.v.) related to the biblical tradition, including the stories of Adam and Eve (q.v.), Lot (q.v.), Joseph (q.v.), and Mary (q.v.), as well as in descriptions of paradise (q.v.).

The pilgrimage (q.v.) to the Kaʿba (q.v.) at Mecca (q.v.) led by the Prophet in year 10 of the hijra (see emigration ), so called because it occurred just months before he died, ‘taking leave’ of the Muslim community (see community and society in the qurʾān ). It is viewed as the primary occasion when the Prophet taught his followers the rites of the Islamic pilgrimage and thus figures prominently in subsequent discussions of its rituals and meaning. It was also the occasion of important announcements concerning the status of several pre-Islamic customs in Islam (see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān ). The Prophet's last pilgrimage represents for later Muslims the completion of divine revelation and the scripture and is thus understood as a time of special holiness. The phrase “farewell pilgrimage” (ḥajjat al-wadāʿwadāʿ ii, 178b ) does not occur in the Qurʾān itself; the related verb, waddaʿawaddaʿa ii, 178b , “to take leave, bid farewell,” occurs once at q 93:3, but with the figurative meaning of to forsake or abandon: “Your lord has not forsaken you, nor does he detest you.”

Hard bony appendages found in the mouths of vertebrates that assist in the chewing of food, as well as in defense and the capturing of prey. The word for tooth (sinnsinn v, 231a ) occurs once in the Qurʾān, in a verse that refers to the biblical lex talionis (law of retaliation [q.v.]): “We prescribed for them [the Jews; see jews and judaism ] therein [in the Torah (q.v.)]: life (q.v.) for life, eye for eye (see eyes ), nose for nose, ear for ear (q.v.), tooth for tooth, and for injuries like retaliation. If someone forgoes (retaliation) out of charity, it shall be an expiation for him. Whoever judges not by that which God has revealed: such are wrong-doers” (q 5:45; see judgment; revelation and inspiration; evil deeds; virtues and vices, commanding and forbidding). This statement occurs in the course of a passage discussing Jews and Christians (see christians and christianity ) who resort to the prophet Muḥammad for the adjudication of legal disputes (q 5:42-50).

One who foretells or interprets events. The Arabic term kāhin, related to Hebrew kohen (“priest”), designates a soothsayer, seer or diviner. It appears twice in the Qurʾān, reflecting one of several accusations di- rected at the prophet Muḥammad: that he was a madman (see insanity ), poet (see poetry and poets ) or soothsayer or that he was instructed by someone else (muʿallammuʿallam v, 78b v, 202b ; see informants ). The text emphatically rejects such slurs:

Olfactory sense; pleasing or unpleasing odor. The verb “to smell” does not occur in the Qurʾān; the word for nose (anfanf v, 62a ) only occurs once, in the context of the lex talionis (see retaliation; law and the qurʾān; teeth); the term rīḥ, usually “wind” (see air and wind ), occurs at least once with the meaning “smell, odor, scent” (q 12:94). Smell plays a significant role in qurʾānic images of paradise (q.v.) and in a scene in the Joseph (q.v.) story (see narratives ). While the visual predominates, qurʾānic imagery also draws on smell, sound, taste and touch (see seeing and hearing; vision and blindness; hearing and deafness ; ears; eyes; hands). The two main types of imagery which evoke the olfactory sense have to do with gardens (see garden ), particularly the garden of Eden or paradise, and drink (see food and drink ). The sense of smell serves to heighten the effect of these depictions of delight (naʿīm; see joy and misery; grace; blessing). Garden imagery in the Qurʾān regularly depicts lush green foliage (see agriculture and vegetation ) and fruit-bearing trees (q.v.), including pomegranates and date-palms (see date palm ). Smell is evoked explicitly in references to the presence there of rayḥān, perhaps best rendered “scented, or sweet-smelling herbs”: wa-l-ḥabbu dhū l-ʿaṣfi wa-l-rayḥānu, “grain with [full, plentiful?] leaves/ears [?] and scented herbs” (q 55:12; see grasses ). The same term occurs in q 56:89: fa-rawḥun wa-rayḥānun wa-jannatu naʿīmin, “Then ease [or a light breeze], scented herbs, and a garden of delight.” In keeping with the theme of sensory delight is the close association of smell with heavenly drink, the descriptions of which refer to perfumes. The drink of the inhabitants of heaven is described as pure wine(raḥīq) mixed with water of the heavenly spring of Tasnīm and “sealed” with musk (miskmisk v, 62b ,q 83:25-8; see springs and fountains; water; wine; intoxicants). In another passage, the righteous shall be rewarded in heaven (see reward and punishment ) with wine mixed with kāfūr, “camphor” (q.v.), and water from another heavenly spring (q 76:5-6). Dressed in silk (q.v.) and reclining on cool couches under shady trees with clusters of fruit hanging down above them, they will drink from shiny goblets of silver (see metals and minerals; cups and vessels) wine mixed with ginger (zanjabīl) and water from the heavenly spring Salsabīl (q 76:12-18). Missing are passages reminiscent of biblical references to the pleasant odor of burnt offerings, presumably because it would not be in keeping with the qurʾānic portrayal of God to suggest that he was delighted by sacrifices and felt hunger or need for them (see sacrifice; anthropomorphism). Missing also are references to women and their perfume which occur frequently in pre-Islamic poetry but which would not go along with the moral tenor of the qurʾānic text (see ethics and the qurʾān; women and the qurʾān; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān; poetry and poets).

The common English translation of sajʿ, an ancient form of Arabic composition used in proverbs, aphorisms, orations, descriptions of meteorological phenomena, and soothsayers' oracular pronouncements before the advent of Islam and in sermons, book titles, introductions, anecdotes, belletristic epistles, chancery correspondence, maqāmāt, histories and other literary works in the Islamic period. In its simplest form, sajʿ consists of groups of consecutive cola sharing a common rhyme and meter. The meter of sajʿ is accentual, determined by the number of words (kalima, lafẓalafẓa iv, 476b ) in each colon (sajʿasajʿa, pl. sajʿāt iv, 476b iv, 477b iv, 479a iv, 479b iv, 480a iv, 480b iv, 481a iv, 482a , pl. sajaʿāt; qarīna, pl. qarāʾin; faṣl, pl. fuṣūl; or fiqra, pl. fiqarfiqra, pl. fiqar iv, 476b ), rather than the patterns of long and short syllables that characterize quantitative meter, with word accents providing the feet or beats. In the most common form of sajʿ, adjacent sajʿas are rhythmically parallel (muʿtadilmuʿtadil iv, 476b ), containing an equal number of beats. Attempts to describe sajʿ rhythm solely in terms of syllables are therefore inadequate. Sajʿ regularly exhibits muwāzana, repetition of a set morphological (and necessarily syllabic or quantitative) pattern in the colon-final word or final foot (sajʿ, pl. asjāʿ; qarīna, pl. qarāʾin; or fāṣila, pl. fawāṣil; cf. Suyūṭī, Itqān, 693-714/iii, 332-60 [chap. 59]; id., Muʿtarak, i, 29-31, 31-2: “Is there rhymed prose in the Qurʾān?”; Ḥasnāwī, al-Fāṣila, 19-27; 31-100; 103-50) of adjacent cola. In addition, sajʿ regularly involves the concentrated use of syntactic and semantic parallelism, alliteration, paronomasia and other rhetorical figures. Given that the characteristic features of sajʿ are end-rhyme, accent-based meter, and muwāzana, the designation “rhymed prose,” reflecting only the first of these three, is something of a misnomer. “Rhymed and rhythmical prose” is an improvement, but it is more accurate to label sajʿ a type of accent poetry. Goldziher and others have suggested that sajʿ is the oldest poetic form in Arabic (see arabic language; literature and the qurʾān) and some, noting the importance of parallelism and other similar features in Akkadian, Ugaritic and Hebrew poetic forms, above all in biblical poetry, have argued that sajʿ in a sense represents the Ur-poetry of the SemitesSemites iv, 477a .

A wish or prayer (q.v.) for misfortune or disaster to befall someone or something; with specific reference to God, the prediction or causation of misfortune; the expression of this invocation, prediction or causation or the result thereof. All of these significations are rendered in the Qurʾān by laʿna, “curse”; closely related is wrath (ghaḍabghaḍab i, 491b iii, 25a iii, 33a iv, 310a , see anger ). Curses are often expressed by verbs with an optative sense, with “to curse, damn” (laʿanalaʿana i, 491b ) appearing most frequently. Other verses which may be read as curses are: “May God fight against them!” (q 9:30; 63:4), “May their hands be tied and may they be cursed for what they have said!” (q 5:64), “May the hands [i.e. the power] of Abū Lahab (q.v.) perish, and may he perish as well!” (q 111:1). The passive qutila (“may he be killed!”) occurs five times (q 51:10; 74:19, 20; 80:17; 85:4). The accusative absolute understood to modify a suppressed verb may also express a curse: “May perdition befall them (fa-taʿstaʿs i, 491b an lahum) and may [God] make their actions vain!” (q 47:8); “May the denizens of hell-fire be far removed [from mercy]!” (fa-suḥqsuḥq i, 491b an li-aṣḥābi l-saʿīr,q 67:11; see hell; fire); “May the wrongdoing folk be far removed!” (fa-buʿdbuʿd i, 491b ii, 363b an lil-qawmi l-ẓālimīn,q 23:41; cf. 11:44, 60, 68, 95; 23:44; see punishment stories ). A curse is created by inversion of the greeting “Welcome!”: “May you not be welcome!” (lā marḥabanmarḥaban i, 491b bikumlā marḥaban bikum i, 491b ,q 38:60). The noun wayl, “woe, misfortune,” appears in such frequent curses as “Woe to the deniers on that day!” (e.g. ten times in q 77; see last judgment ).