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The state of happiness and that of wretchedness, respectively. References to joy and misery are frequent in the Qurʾān, are expressed either directly or by implication, and pertain both to this world and the next (see eschatology ). Pleasures of this world are neither condemned nor forbidden (q.v.; see also asceticism; abstinence; wealth; poverty and the poor; lawful and unlawful), but believers are to be mindful about the source of these pleasures (see gratitude and ingratitude ). Current wretchedness is not a sure sign of divine favor or disfavor (see blessing; grace; curse; reward and punishment; trial): the true believer, however, is to assist those who are less fortunate (see ethics and the qurʾān; community and society in the qurʾān). While the joys and miseries of the present life are not absent from the qurʾānic discourse, it is the states of joy and misery experienced in the next life upon which the Qurʾān places its strongest emphasis (see reward and punishment ).

Full physical and mental capacity. The notion of maturity (ashuddashudd iii, 330a , rushd) has reference to a person who has attained complete natural development, who is fully grown and capable of assuming the responsible management of his or her own affairs.