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"Voice," "diathesis," and "genus verbi" are terms that have been employed in very different ways, particularly in approaches to the lexicon and (morpho)syntactic interface of Slavic languages. Theoretical assumptions concerning grammar and lexicon (first of all, notions about lexical units, grammatical categories, inflection, and the role played by morphology) have varied widely. The article supplies a survey of the central notions, and of the frameworks behind them, which since the 19th century have influenced the assessment of voice phenomena in Slavic languages. The most well-founded approaches by Melˈčuk and the Leningrad/St. Petersburg Typology School introduced a clear distinction between voice and diathesis. On the one hand, these approaches have framed grammaticography in many Slavic-speaking countries and influenced Slavists in European and American linguistics; on the other hand, this distinction has often not been followed consistently. The present survey serves to disentangle the inconsistencies.

The "lexeme" has occupied center stage in Russian structuralist theories of morphology and its interface with lexicology. The article traces the history of this notion, its different treatments in Russian linguistics, which has influenced grammatical and lexicographic theory in other Slavic-speaking countries, and how these approaches differ from approaches outside of Slavic linguistics. "Lexeme" is intimately connected to the notion of paradigm and, thus, important for a classification of grammatical categories and the delimitation of lexical entries. In particular, this notion has been crucial in Slavic aspectology, since a core issue of the latter regards the lexicographic status and paradigmatic relations of derivationally related verb stems with close or identical meanings. 

Modality is among the broadest notions used in linguistics. Therefore the term modality is delimited here into four categories of dispositional (participant-internal), circumstantial (often called dynamic), deontic, and epistemic modality. This grid is then applied to a variety of linguistic phenomena in Slavic languages to indicate functions belonging to these four categories, either as their core function or by recurrent and sufficiently reliable implicatures. These means include (i) distinct markers (words, morphemes), (ii) constructions, and (iii) suprasegmental properties. Particular attention is paid not only to modal auxiliaries and other core means, but also to less well-known derivational means like deverbal deadjectives and to the role of aspect in diverse constructions.