Jane I. Smith
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(6,890 words)

Doctrine about the final things to come at the end of time. Two of the earliest and most important messages given to the prophet Muḥammad (q.v.), prominent in the Meccan revelations (see chronology and the qurʾān ), were about the oneness of God and the accountability of human beings at the last day (yawm al-qiyāma, lit. the day of resurrection; see god and his attributes; last judgment; resurrection). These two message were so integrally linked that the Qurʾān in many places suggests that faith in God isfaith in the yawm al-qiyāma, the time when all will be resurrected and held accountable. The recognition of God's unity or oneness, tawḥīd, also necessitates a response of moral and ethical uprightness (see ethics and the qurʾān ), and it is on the basis of one's comportment in life that judgment (q.v.) is rendered and final reward or punishment is accorded (see reward and punishment ). It is no coincidence that those who have earned a place in the gardens (see garden ) of paradise (q.v.) are often referred to as the people who affirm God's oneness (ahl al-tawḥīd).

Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online

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